License Image The head of the femur and the acetabulum of the hip bone form the hip joint. Both the head of the femur and acetabulum are covered by articular (hyaline) cartilage. The ligamentum teres is attached to the fovea or pit on the head of the femur, and to the lower margin of the […]
Pelvis & Hip
License Image Both the hip joint and the shoulder joint are ball and socket joints. The head of the femur and the cup like acetabulum are covered with articular cartilage. The cartilage in the acetabulum is in a horseshoe or lunate shape. The articular fossa is filled with fat and covered by synovial membrane. With […]
License Image The pelvis or “basin” is composed of four bones: the two hip bones, the sacrum and the coccyx. The bowl like pelvis with it’s concave iliac fossa, and pelvic floor muscles, helps to support the internal organs of the abdomen. The pelvis also acts as a solid foundation for the attachment of the […]
License Image The sacrum is a large curved triangular bone situated like a wedge between the two hip bones. It is formed by the five fused sacral vertebrae. The transverse ridges represent the intervertebral discs of the immature sacrum which have become ossified and fused. The base of the sacrum articulates with the body of […]
License Image The sacroiliac joint is the synovial joint between the ilium of the hip bone, and the sacrum. These interconnecting bones fit snugly together, allowing very little movement, and supporting the weight bearing function of the pelvis. In advanced age the cavity between the bones may disappear altogether, becoming fibrous or the bones fused. […]
License Image The sacrum is connected to the ischium of the hip bone by the sacrotuberous and sacrospinous ligaments. The posterior sacroiliac ligament blends with the fibers of the sacrotuberous ligament which attaches from the sacrum to the ischial tuberosity.
License Image Ligaments of the posterior hip bone and and sacrum. Both the interosseus sacroiliac ligament and the posterior sacroiliac ligaments support the sacroiliac joint. The posterior sacroiliac ligament blends with the fibers of the sacrotuberous ligament which attaches from the sacrum to the ischial tuberosity.
License Image The obturator internus arises from the inner surface of the pelvis where it partially covers the obturator foramen. The muscle fibers converge into a tendinous band which lies between the ischial spine and ischial tuberosity, and makes a sharp turn around the ischial bone as it heads towards it’s insertion on the greater […]
License Image The piriformis is a flat triangular shaped muscle that originates inside the pelvis and passes through the sciatic foramen on it’s way to insertion on the greater trochanter of the femur. The superior gemellus lies parallel to the obturator internus tendon, and it’s tendon blends with that of the obturator as it inserts […]
License Image This group of outer hip muscles includes the piriformis, superior gemellus, inferior gemellus, obturator internus and obturator externus. With their insertions on or near the greater trochanter of the femur, these muscles rotate the thigh laterally.
License Image Pelvic Floor Muscles The muscles of the “pelvic floor” or “pelvic diaphragm” are the levator ani, and the coccygeus. The levator ani is divided into two parts: the pubococcygeus and the iliococcygeus. Kegel exercises are designed to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor, primarily the pubococcygeus muscle. These exercises are usually done […]