License Image The splenius capitis and the splenius cervicis are neck extensors. The splenius capitis originates from the lower portion of the nuchal ligament, the spine of the 7th cervical vertebrae, and the spines of the first 3 or 4 thoracic vertebrae. The splenius cervicis originates from the transverse processes of the first two cervical […]
Shoulder & Back
License Image The erector spinae is made up of three long groups of muscles: the spinalis, the longissimus, and the iliocostalis.
License Image The clavicle and scapula form the shoulder girdle. This acts as the bony framework by which the muscles of the chest, upper back and shoulder connect the upper limb to the trunk of the body and control it’s movements.The clavicle connects to the sternum via the sternoclavicular joint and to the scapula by […]
License Image The deltoid, teres major, teres minor, infraspinatus, supraspinatus (not shown) and subscapularis muscles (not shown) all extend from the scapula to the humerus and act on the shoulder joint. The trapezius and latissimus dorsi muscles connect the upper limb to the vertebral column. Both the deltoid and the trapezius are firmly attached to […]
License Image The trapezius, rhomboid and levator muscles of the shoulder.
License Image The deltoid muscle of the shoulder as seen from the front.
License Image The latissimus dorsi muscle of the back.
License Image The joint cavity is surrounded by a loose fitting fibrous articular capsule. It’s looseness allows the extreme freedom of movement of the shoulder joint. The capsule is strengthened by the tendons and ligaments surrounding and blending with it. The coracohumeral, glenohumeral ligaments and the tendons of the supraspinatus and subscapularis muscles all serve […]
License Image The clavicle as viewed from above. The clavicle joins the acromion of the scapula at the acromioclavicular joint. The clavicle joins the sternum at the sternoclavicular joint. The clavicle is the most frequently broken bone in the body.
License Image The shoulder joint ligaments shown are the acromioclavicular ligament, coracoacromial ligament, coracohumeral ligament, coracoclavicular ligament, and the articular capsule or glenohumeral ligaments. Boney structures shown are the Coracoid process of the scapula, the clavicle and the humerus.
License Image The shoulder joint ligaments shown are the acromioclavicular ligament, coracoclavicular ligament, the superior transverse scapular ligament and the joint capsule or glenohumeral ligaments. Boney structures shown are the acromion of the scapula, the clavicle and the humerus.
License Image The glenohumeral or shoulder joint, is a ball and socket joint. It is formed by the head of the humerus and the glenoid cavity of the scapula. Both are covered by articular cartilage and surrounded by a fibrous articular capsule. The glenoid cartilage thickens at the edge to form the fibrocartilaginous glenoid labrum, […]
License Image The anterior view of the arm with the subscapularis, a “rotator cuff” muscle of the shoulder.
License Image The posterior view of the arm with the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and teres major “rotator cuff” muscles of the shoulder.
License Image This diagram illustrates the interior of the right shoulder joint capsule as viewed from the side. The humerus, or upper arm bone, has been removed to show the glenoid cavity of the scapula. The supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and subscapularis muscles are known as the shoulder “rotator” muscles. Their tendons blend with each […]
License Image The glenoid labrum is a fibrocartilaginous rim attached around the margin of the glenoid cavity of the scapula. The shoulder joint is considered a ‘ball and socket’ joint. The glenoid labrum helps to deepen the “socket”. It is continuous with the tendon of the long head of the biceps brachii, which blends with […]